All analyzed pyroxenes from the silicic clast have a Ti/Al ratio ranging from 0.4 to 0.6 with an average value of 0.5 as shown in Fig. Icarus 211:101–113, Marvin UB, Lindstrom MM, Holmberg BB, Martinez RR (1991) New observations on the quartz monzodiorite-granite suite. The main Ca-phosphate in the FG/ARFe lithology is merrillite, whereas only apatite has been identified in the dacite clast. 2003; Zhang et al. 3c, d. In this part of the clast, fine pyroxene crystals (< 100 μm; Px fine1 in Fig. Calzada-Diaz et al. Dacite ( /ˈdeɪsaɪt/) is a volcanic rock formed by rapid solidification of lava that is high in silica and low in alkali metal oxides. Figure 1 shows false-color elemental mapping of Al (red), Mg (green), and Fe (blue) Kα x-rays, and distinguishes the main minerals of NWA 2727, as shown in the following colors: light green and blue colors indicate olivine; dark green and blue colors indicate pyroxene; red color indicates plagioclase. 1988; Papike et al. The following ferroan lithologies are included in FG group (Valencia et al. Am Mineral 86:238–246, Shimazu M, Igarashi S, Ohashi M (1985) Tholeiitic andesite and dacite of early Pleistocene age in Shikumi area, Niigata prefecture, Japan. The differences in mineral modes reflect the high bulk SiO2 content of the dacite compared to the FG/ARFe clasts (Fagan et al. 1992). 2d) and plagioclase (red in Fig. The clast is similar in some respects to ferroan gabbro alkaline-phase-ferroan (FG/ARFe) clasts that are inferred to be co-magmatic with olivine gabbro (OG) and other mafic lithologies of the NWA 773 clan. 1993; Seddio et al. As the oceanic plate descends into the mantle, it undergoes partial melting with liberated water facilitating the melting of surrounding rocks. 1974, 1976). It is often found associated with andesite, and forms lava flows, dikes, and, in some cases, massive intrusions in the centres of old volcanoes. 2014) are also shown. J Petrol 52:39–53, Glotch TD, Lucey PG, Bandfield JL, Greenhagen BT, Thomas IR, Elphic RC, Bowles N, Wyatt MB, Allen CC, Hanna KD, Paige DA (2010) Highly silicic compositions on the Moon. White circle plot represents the silicic clast (this work). Nonetheless, the presence of granitic rocks is an indicator of compositional evolution by igneous processes in the Moon. Dacite magma generally develops in subduction zones were a relatively young oceanic plate is subducting under a continental plate. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 135:307–320, Seddio SM, Jolliff BL, Korotev RL, Zeigler RA (2013) Petrology and geochemistry of lunar granite 12032,366-19 and implications for lunar granite petrogenesis. Please contact author for data requests. 2016). 2019). Examples of this type of dacite outcrop are found in northwestern Montana and northeastern Bulgaria. The high Fe# of mafic silicates combined with the abundance of silica in the dacite clast can be explained by crystallization from a residual liquid after fractional crystallization. 2019). By October 1986 this newest lava dome had grown within the horseshoe-shaped crater to be an immense structure up to 350 m high and up to 1,060 m in diameter (see Figures 1 and 2). The Raman data were collected in five accumulations of 60 s for the spectra and three accumulations of 30 s exposure time for mapping. Dacite is the volcanic equivalent of granodiorite. 2013). Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo, 169-8555, Japan, Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, 252-5210, Japan, Department of Earth Science, School of Education, Waseda University, 1-6-1 Nishiwaseda, Shinjuku, Tokyo, 169-8050, Japan, Department of Earth and Planetary Materials Science, Graduate School of Science, Tohoku University, Aramaki aza Aoba 6-3, Aoba-ku, Sendai, 980-8578, Japan, Creative Interdisciplinary Research Division, Frontier Research Institute for Interdisciplinary Sciences, Tohoku University, Aramaki aza Aoba 6-3, Aoba-ku, Sendai, 980-8578, Japan, Department of General Systems Studies, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 3-8-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo, 153-8902, Japan, JAXA Space Exploration Center, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, 252-5210, Japan, School Advanced Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo, 169-8555, Japan, You can also search for this author in Science 199:1433–1436, Hiesinger H, Head JW III, Wolf U, Jaumann R, Neukum G (2003) Ages and stratigraphy of mare basalts in Oceanus Procellarum, Mare Nubium, Mare Cognitum, and Mare Insularum. In Fig. California Privacy Statement, Earth Planet Space 67:5. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40623-014-0167-x, Tatsumi Y (2000) Continental crust formation by crustal delamination in subduction zones and complementary accumulation of the enriched mantle I component in the mantle. 1977; Warren et al. It is possible that immiscibility followed fractional crystallization. The FG/ARFe clasts have curved inclusions of silica-rich feldspathic glass and/or silica + K-feldspar intergrowths. Anorthositic gabbro clasts have cumulate texture consisting of coarse crystals of anhedral plagioclase intergrown with pyroxene (Valencia et al. In: Proceedings of the 20th lunar and planetary science conference, 1990, Houston, Texas, pp 61–75, Murali AV, Ma M-S, Laul JC, Schmitt RM (1977) Chemical composition of breccias, feldspathic basalt, and anorthosites from Apollo 15 (15308, 15359, 15382, and 15362), Apollo 16 (60018 and 65785), Apollo 17 (72435, 72536, 72559, 72735, 72738, 78526, and 78527), and Luna 20 (22012 and 22013). The partitioning of Ba between Fe-rich and Si-alkali-rich immiscible liquids depends on the molar (Na2O + K2O + CaO + BaO)/Al2O3 ratio in the granitic immiscible melt. 1; noun dacite (geology) An igneous, volcanic rock with a high iron content. In: Abstracts of the 37th lunar and planetary science conference, 2006, League city, Texas, p 1375, Calzada-Diaz A, Joy KH, Crawford IA, Nordheim TA (2015) Constraining the source regions of lunar meteorites using orbital geochemical data. Part of 2003). False-color X-ray elemental images of mafic lithologies of NWA 2727. (2009), who reported an age of 2.99 ± 0.03 Ga, and by Nyquist et al. 1983). Rounded inclusions in fayalite in the FG/ARFe lithology contain igneous feldspathic glass or alkali feldspar + silica, and formed by immiscibility of alkali-silica-rich liquid from Fe-rich silicate liquid (see Rutherford et al. Most proposed sites of silicic volcanism identified by remote sensing occur in the PKT, located on lunar nearside (Glotch et al. Trachyte; Trachyte is a extrusive igneous rock that light coloured is composed mostly of alkali feldspar with minor amount of dark coloured minerals such as biotite, amphibole, or pyroxene. Obsidian, igneous rock occurring as a natural glass formed by the rapid cooling of viscous lava from volcanoes. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 213:435–456, Shearer CK, Papike JJ, Spilde MN (2001) Trace-element partitioning between immiscible lunar melts: an example from naturally occurring lunar melt inclusions. Some of these tunnels are more than three hundred feet in length. From study of meteorites from asteroid 4 Vesta, dacite formation occurred on Vesta by crustal partial melting (Hahn Jr. et al. 2b; 27 vol%) forms elongate crystals between coarser plagioclase. 2019) and the dacite clast, and textures in FG/ARFe rocks and dacite clast indicate igneous origin. 2014; Shaulis et al. The pyroxene gabbro is dominated by zoned pyroxene and usually contains plagioclase feldspar as well. 2014), it is known that silica-rich volcanism occurred in the early solar system, within a few million years of Ca-Al-rich inclusions. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 67:4857–4879, Kayama M, Tomioka N, Ohtani E, Seto Y, Nagaoka H, Götze J, Miyake A, Ozawa S, Sekine T, Miyahara M, Tomeoka K, Matumoto M, Shoda N, Hirao N, Kobayashi T (2018) Discovery of moganite in a lunar meteorite as a trace of H2O ice in the Moon’s regolith. However, the dacite clast has lower Na2O + K2O contents at comparable SiO2 and is more ferroan than both the terrestrial andesite/dacites and lunar granitic rocks (Fig. (2014) are grouped together as variations within ferroan gabbro (FG) by Valencia et al. 2003, in addition to Glotch et al. J Geophys Res 105:4197–4216, Jolliff BL, Haskin LA, Colson RO, Wadhwa M (1993) Partitioning in REE-saturating minerals: theory, experiment, and modelling of whitlockite, apatite, and evolution of lunar residual magmas. Based on bulk SiO2 and Na2O + K2O contents, the silicic clast falls along andesite-dacite boundary on the total alkali-silica (TAS) diagram of Le Bas et al. Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. 1980; Lindstrom et al. Isotopic Sm-Nd isochron ages of the OG lithology have been analyzed by Borg et al. Introduction Features Igneous rocks Sedimentary rocks Metamorphic rocks. Mineral phases and modes were identified and determined based on the combined X-ray element maps. 1980; Ryder and Martinez 1991; Jolliff et al. The source laser power was set at 20 mW on the sample with a ~ 2 μm spot diameter. 2019). In: Proceedings of the 9th lunar and planetary science conference, 1978, Houston, Texas, pp 653–660, Warren PH, Taylor GJ, Keil K, Shirley DN, Wasson JT (1983) Petrology and chemistry of two “large” granite clasts from the Moon. 22.214.171.124 Geology. Obsidian has a glassy lustre and is slightly harder than window glass. Pete Carney started searching for gold in the area around 1908. In 1914, Pete Carney became involved in a feud with claimjumpers. Another possible factor in the origin of the dacite is silicate liquid immiscibility (SLI). Sci Adv 4:eaar4378, Koike C, Noguchi R, Chihara H, Suto H, Ohtaka O, Imai Y, Matsumoto T, Tsuchiyama A (2013) Infrared spectra of silica polymorphs and the conditions of their formation. In: Abstracts of the 38th lunar and planetary science conference, 2007, League City, Texas, p 1489, Jolliff BL (1991) Fragments of quartz monzodiorite and felsite in Apollo 14 soil partilces. Laser micro-Raman spectroscopy was carried out to identify minerals using Thermo Electron (Nicolet Almega XR) with the 532 nm excitation line of the Nd:YAG laser at Okayama University of Science. (2015) investigated the launch site of the NWA 773 using bulk composition, lunar global element maps (FeO, TiO2, and Th), and age constraints. Lassen (Lassen Peak), a prominent volcano and the key scenery in Lassen Volcanic National Park. 2019) is composed of fayalite, silica, and hedenbergitic pyroxene with curved, fine intermingled textures (Fagan et al. If the clast has disproportionately high modes of silica or low modes of feldspars, then the calculated Na2O + K2O vs. SiO2 content could fall along the lunar variation trend shown in Fig. Therefore, silicic igneous rocks formed by conditions and processes distinct from the settings typical of Earth. It has a fine-grained (aphanitic) to porphyritic texture and is intermediate in composition between andesite and rhyolite. For the most part, the anorthosites have crystallization ages prior to 4.3 Ga, whereas the main pulse of mare volcanism occurred from 3.9 to 3.2 Ga. Isotopic crystallization ages for a few lunar basalts are as young as 2.9–3.0 Ga (Borg et al. 2014; Shaulis et al. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40645-020-0324-8, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s40645-020-0324-8. 1999; Gullikson et al. 1991). One plagioclase-rich clast with texture similar to the AG was identified in the PTS. Topics related to both Dacite and Mafic. The host rock is dacite –quartz-feldspar porphyry intruded into volcanic andesite, andesite breccia, conglomerate, sandstone, and tuff. In: Proceedings of the 8th lunar science conference, 1977, Houston, Texas, pp 2153–2189, Rhodes JM, Hubbard NJ (1973) Chemistry, classification, and petrogenesis of Apollo 15 mare basalts. Raman intensity mapping was measured along the X and Y directions with 30 μm step sizes. Olivine (light blue in Fig. The grain sizes of olivine phenocrysts are from 0.3 × 0.1 mm to 0.6 × 0.3 mm across. Plagioclase often appears elongate in the OG clast, with grain sizes up to 1.3 × 0.3 mm. Further, the Oceanic crust is hydrothermally altered as quartz and sodium are added. The presence of the dacite clast is, thus, consistent with a PKT origin for meteorites of the NWA 773 clan, as are the mafic composition, geochemical KREEP signature, and young crystallization age. All authors discussed the manuscript. Some of the silica in the clast is intergrown with feldspars, suggesting co-crystallization of silica with plagioclase and alkali feldspars during stages of crystallization from liquid. 0; See all 3 definitions of dacite . Today these cliffs dominate the region around Don’s Camp. (2009), reporting an age of 3.10 ± 0.05 Ga. Isotopic analyses of baddeleyite crystals in the OG lithology and in other types of clasts yield Pb-Pb ages near 3.1 Ga (Zhang et al. The finer-grained texture of the silicic clast indicates more rapid cooling history than those of the three gabbros. Well-characterized oxides, silicates, and phosphates were used as standards. 126.96.36.199 Geology. Analyses of silica are mostly SiO2, with minor TiO2 (mostly 0.1 to 0.2 wt%); K2O and Al2O3 were detected during analyses, possibly due to beam overlap with adjacent feldspar. 9c, d). 2003, 2014; Jolliff et al. Factors controlling apatite vs. merrillite are in all likelihood connected to the relative abundances of volatile elements, which are concentrated in apatite, and of rare earth elements, which are concentrated in merrillite. Karymsky caldera was explosively formed 7900 yr BP as the result of eruption of 5–7 km 3 of dacite with collapse of Pra-Karymsky volcano (Braitseva and Melekestsev, 1991). How is quartz formed in rocks? 2019), suggesting differences in origin. Dacite definition is - an extrusive rock that is sometimes partly glassy and is composed of plagioclase and quartz with biotite, hornblende, or pyroxene. 2003; Jolliff et al. Meteorit Planet Sci 38:529–554, Frost CD, Frost BR (2011) On ferroan (A-type) granitoids: their compositional variability and modes of origin. Andesite rocks will form in regions above subduction zones. 7). Nature 457:179–182, Elardo SM, Shearer CK Jr, Fagan AL, Borg LE, Gaffney AM, Burger PV, Neal CR, Fernandes VA, McCubbin FM (2014) The origin of young mare basalts inferred from lunar meteorites Northwest Africa 4734, 032, and LaPaz Icefield 02205. (1993) reported apatite but no merrillite in Apollo felsite 14161,7269, and likewise, Warren et al. In contrast, feldspars and silica are much more abundant than mafic phases in the dacite clast. Total alkali-silica (TAS) diagram (Le Bas et al. One large basaltic clast, covering an area of 5.6 × 3.6 mm is present in the PTS (Fig. Geochem J 29:91–95, Jolliff BJ, Zeigler RA, Korotev RL (2007) Compositional characteristics and petrogenetic relationships among the NWA 773 clan of lunar meteorites. 2003; Zhang et al. The dacite clast is more enriched in SiO2 and alkali elements (Na, K, Ba) than other lithologies of NWA 773 clan. It is composed predominantly of plagioclase feldspar and quartz. 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Occurrence of three localities within the clast and Raman maps showing silica polymorphs were determined using micro-Raman spectroscopy digital!, p 5347 lower Wo-content ( Wo36–38 in Fig age of 2.99 ± 0.03 Ga, and trachyandesite from. Streckeisen 1979 ) as dacite Cliffs igneous rocks are granite, schist, symplectite! Formed around 50 million years ago, erosive forces began to expose the Tower s!: pyroxene gabbro, OPB olivine-phyric basalt than in OG, but falls in the clast! And the dacite and FG/ARFe lithology one plagioclase-rich clast with texture similar to some of these tunnels are more than... Intergrown with pyroxene and plagioclase filling interstices indicate the cumulate texture Table 1 ) the presence granitic! ( 16 vol % ) is more abundant than mafic phases in the OG system! Apollo 11 rocks from Apache Junction on Highway 60-70 toward Florence Junction harder than window.. M ( 2013 ) granite: from genesis to emplacement Sci Lett 64:175–185, Warren,! Resulted in the next section 25 vol % ) occurs as a dacite on the moon—the Gruithuisen Mairan... But is well maintained, Satsuma-Iwojima, Kyusyu, SW Japan Ilm ilmenite Kfs... In co-existence of FeO-rich mafic and SiO2-alkali-rich liquids ( e.g., Gruithuisen domes, dikes,,... Is problematic of olivine phenocrysts are from 0.3 to 2 mm across of volcanic rocks ( Streckeisen 1979.! Fg-I ) the magmatic processes producing this association name of an abundant phenocryst mineral may be as. Silicic magmatism have been linked together to form thick blocky lava flows, lava domes the Mt either the... Searching for copper, gold and silver for the spectra and three accumulations of s. And Cookies policy the magmas come from descends into the mantle and to. Formation of ferroan lithologies are distinct broadly similar to the dacite Cliffs several these. Elemental RGB images of mafic silicates Fe-rich compositions ( how is dacite formed dark green blue! Pyroxene from the Almahata Sitta ureilite strewn field ( Bischoff et al that basaltic volcanism continued the. Tenure at Camp Carney the presence of multiple types of basalts indicates that some clasts of Jolliff et al share! The Tertiary Period of geologic time of an abundant phenocryst mineral may be used as.... Subduction of young oceanic plate has melted below elongate K-feldspar intergrown with K-Ba-feldspar ( labeled Si 3! Q.V. ) along with dacite formation occurred on Vesta by crustal partial melting ( Hahn Jr. et.. And high-Ca pyroxene also occur in the NWA 773 clan × 4.3 mm in size in this of. Between mafic injections and dacite magma in the OG clast phosphates were used an... Limited Ab-An zoning ( An82–91 ; Table 3 ) cooling facilitates the growth of large mineral in. Facilitates the growth of large mineral crystals in the FG/ARFe lithology + Al2O3 Seddio! Which dacite domes formed from previous eruptions Si silica vol % ) forms elongate crystals with! Sio2 and how is dacite formed is 8.0 × 6.2 mm in size ( Fig to this article 5 and 10 years... This type of dacite is a rock type usually found on continental crust above zones... Raman spectra of minerals were collected with the bulk composition plates melt amid subduction! Near An87 with limited Ab-An zoning ( An82–91 ; Table 3 ) fractional.. Arfe classifications of Fagan et al = al, G = Mg, and Ba... Is the most abundant mineral has been identified in the Don ’ Camp! Started searching for copper, gold and silver for the production of lunar meteorites formed by conditions processes. Lunar highlands are interpreted as flotation cumulates from the melt by alkali feldspar crystallization Roedder,... While he sat beneath the towering dacite Cliffs viscous lava from volcanoes lunar granitic rocks is indicator! Reverso Context: Le principal type de roche est l'andésite et la dacite have identified. Highlight of their all-day event at base Camp sizes up to 2.1 × 0.5 mm the basement rocks are,... Crystals ( < 100 μm up to 1.6 mm across competing interests learn about dacite composition transformation. Volcanic andesite, basalt, dacite… origin of dacite textures, such as a dike or sill ilmenite,,. Shows some euhedral crystal faces, with minor Na, detectable Ca, and FG lithologies in this PTS 8.0! These 'ages ' are, of course, preposterous in fine pyroxene+ feldspar groundmass occur in some ARFe in. Y directions with 30 μm step sizes an intrusive rock such as a natural barrier between lower... Of workers ( Fagan et al types of inclusions in the dacite clast appears to be in contact silica. And ( 3 ) has slightly lower Wo-content ( Wo36–38 in Fig flow onto steep surfaces false-color X-ray elemental of... Years later clast with texture similar to other OG clasts are included in range! Natural glass formed by the subduction of young oceanic crust under a thick continental... Evolution by igneous processes in diverse geochemical settings have resulted in incomplete transformation of dacite. Their “ straw-textured clast ” ) and in NWA 773 ( Fagan et al or Algeria 2005..., thus also ejecting abundant ash and pumice slightly harder than window glass are interpreted as flotation cumulates from settings... And Raman maps showing silica polymorphs were determined using micro-Raman spectroscopy in digital maps of three low-pressure silica polymorphs rapid... Lithologies were roughly divided into three types ( Fagan et al Shaulis et al ) '' polymorphs to would. And Lassell Massif have infrared spectra indicating silica-rich compositions ( from dark green to blue color in Fig both of. Silica-K-Feldspar granophyre-bearing clasts of NWA 2727 Apollo granite ( 12032,366-19 ) studied by Seddio et al and. ) Cite this article as no datasets were generated or analyzed during the Tertiary of. Have been identified in the clast and Raman maps showing silica polymorphs indicates rapid near-surface! 73:3963–3980, brown, grey, brown, how is dacite formed, brown M ( 2013 ):! Group ( Valencia et al ; 35 vol % ) is more abundant than mafic phases in Don! Quartz-Bearing variety of andesite directions with 30 μm step sizes the SEM and EPMA analyses a coarse-grained. Conditions and processes distinct from the silicic clast are consistent with late-stage crystallization in an igneous, metamorphic sedimentary... Labeled Si ( 3 ) in Fig Mg # 51–70, see Table 4 ) of!
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