Social sanctions like loss of citizen status were the consequence of cowardice in battle; a system of homosexual pair-bonding maintained the normal hoplite bonds at a level of ferocious intensity; and the economic surplus provided by the lots of land worked by the helots was used to finance the elite institution of the syssitia, with loss of full citizen status for men who could not meet their “mess bill.” The agoge, however, transformed Sparta and set it apart from other states. They made the city tear down its walls, but refused to destroy the city or enslave its people. The relationship of hatred and exploitation (the helots handed over half of their produce to Sparta) was the determining feature in Spartan internal life. If being a warrior was the way of life in Sparta, it was entirely different in Athens, which prioritized arts, philosophy, and education. Prominent among the states that never experienced tyranny was Sparta, a fact remarked on even in antiquity. These are ready-to-use Athens Versus Sparta worksheets that are perfect for teaching students about the Athens and Sparta which are both famous and prosperous cities in Ancient Greece, which have also rivaled each other for years. 10 Fearless Facts About Sparta that Tell Us what it Was Really Like. This sample is exclusively for KidsKonnect members!To download this worksheet, click the button below to signup for free (it only takes a minute) and you'll be brought right back to this page to start the download! Ares Borghese, 420 B.C.E. Besides, the city of Sparta was formed by them. Today, Ancient Greece Sparta Athens is known for its bravery and its army while Athens … Athens could have been named Poseidonopolis! Perhaps part of the motive was genuine ideological dislike of tyranny; Sparta was to exploit this role as late as 431, when it entered the great Peloponnesian War as would-be liberator of Greece from the new “tyranny” in Greece—namely, the Athenian empire. The first 10 years of the conflict are known as “Archidamian War,” after Spartan King Archidamus. Athens is the symbol of freedom, art, and democracy in the conscience of the civilized world. Sign Me Up, Editing resources is available exclusively for KidsKonnect Premium members.To edit this worksheet, click the button below to signup (it only takes a minute) and you'll be brought right back to this page to start editing! Ancient Greece Sparta Athens: Life in ancient city-states of Athens and Sparta was very different. Spartans did not use coins, so they avoid trading. As early as the 5th century one finds “laconizers” in other states (the word derives from “Laconia,” the name for the Spartan state, or Lacedaemon, and signifies cultural admiration for Sparta and its institutions). Athens was ruled by archons, who were elected annually. 2. They are just 95 miles away from each other, but their differences were vastly noticeable. Sparta . When Spartan was trying to attack again, Athens was hit by a plague that came from Egypt. The kings ruled both cities. On this view, which is not here followed, the Rhetra itself, with its stipulation of powers for the (hoplite) damos, is a 7th-century manifestation of hoplite assertiveness: in fact, it represents a kind of Spartan alternative to tyranny. This alliance did not sit well with Sparta even though they had their own Peloponnesian League consisting of Corinth, Elis, Tegea, and other states. 4. Spartan warriors wore red clothes to hide their bloody wounds during battles. Each had their strengths and weaknesses and even shared some common patterns such as stable economies and defence architecture. But Pericles restrained his army from fighting until the Peloponnesian dispersed. These worksheets have been specifically designed for use with any international curriculum. Proximity to the sea also encouraged Athens to build a strong naval fleet. It was never able to regain its military supremacy and was finally absorbed by the Achaean League in the 2nd century BC. Sparta: It is believed that in Sparta, the elders tested a newborn baby for deformities and if the baby was deemed unlikely to become a strong soldier, he was tossed into a gorge. It is odd, however, that the number two should have been so permanently entrenched. When Sparta defeated Athens in the Peloponnesian War, it secured an unrivaled hegemony over southern Greece. But that theory can be turned on its head: perhaps the Spartans retrojected their antipathy to tyranny into the Archaic period as a way of justifying their moral stance in the late 430s. You can use these worksheets as-is, or edit them using Google Slides to make them more specific to your own student ability levels and curriculum standards. Created: Oct 26, 2009 | Updated: Dec 12, 2014. They typically outnumbered the original citizens, which caused a lot of concern to the Spartan government. That view—which involves down-dating Theopompus and Polydorus to the 7th century from the 8th and still more arbitrarily attributing to them the activity presupposed by the Rhetra rather than the rider—does too much violence to the best chronological evidence (that of Thucydides and Herodotus), and a view in terms of 8th-century political synoecism should be preferred. … The city center of Athens is only 15 sq miles or 39 sq kilometers. Interesting Facts about the Peloponnesian War The first major war between Athens and Sparta is often called the Archidamian War after Sparta's King Archidamus II. The Spartans could not risk frequent military activity far from home, because this would entail leaving behind a large population of discontented helots (who outnumbered Spartans by seven to one). If it weren’t for an olive tree, Poseidon might have been the city’s patron. Athens v Sparta PowerPoint - Ancient Greeks History. 20 interesting facts about Ancient Sparta - Ancient Sparta, one of the Greek state states, became a symbol of strength, masculinity and inflexibility. Each member ensured that Spartan enemies are their enemies and allowed Sparta domination over them. In 478 BC, Greek city-states … Terms in this set (53) Athens Government. A solution, occasionally tried by adventurous Spartan commanders, was selective enfranchisement of helots. The former because of their wealth and culture and the latter because of their military expertise. Eventually, it almost looked like an Athenian Empire rather than an Alliance. Athens has experienced almost every form of government. Athens was ruled by archons, who were elected One of the saddest Peloponnesian War facts is that Athens, which emerged as a superpower before the war had lost it all. Both Athens and Sparta had an Assembly, whose members were elected by the people. During the Peloponnesian War, Sparta and Athens fought against each other. One way of doing so was to back the claim of the Pisatans (rather than the Eleans) to run the Olympic Games. It has three branches: The Assembly, The Council of Elders, and the Kings. Athens is statistically one of the lowest ranking capital cities when it comes to violent crime. Two Kings ruled Sparta at all times. The first Olympic Games in history were held in Athens in 776 B.C. The word Spartan means bravery, discipline, austere. the Dorians settled at Peloponnesus and formed a city state. Certainly there is some circularity in the usual reconstructions of one crucial corrupt line of the relevant poem. Around 1100 B.C. The Helots are captured people in the land they conquered. But a recent investigator goes too far in seeing the agoge as the work of the 3rd-century Stoic philosopher Sphaerus; the Greek historian Xenophon in the 4th century allows us to glimpse the essentials. Their ideals, principles, and the way they tackle challenges are so contrasting it created animosity between them. Athens vs. Sparta. Athenian democracy wasn’t quite as democratic as some people … image: www.best-games-online.com. The references to tribes and obes are then seen as part of a reform of the citizen body and of the army, comparable to and not much earlier than tribal changes elsewhere (see below The reforms of Cleisthenes). The city center of Athens is only 15 sq miles or 39 sq kilometers. Sparta was one of the most powerful city-states in Ancient Greece. Athens vs Sparta During the 5th century BC, Greece was dominated by two main powers: democratic Athens and the military oligarchy of Sparta. They are just 95 miles away from each other, but their differences were vastly noticeable. 4. Athens constituted of people who were known as literate while people of Sparta were illiterate. After the war, Sparta became the dominant force and Athens could never recover from the losses and regain its prewar status. Sparta was an Ancient Greek city located on the Evrotas River in Laconia, surrounded by mountains. The result was an alliance with Arcadian Tegea, which in turn inaugurated a network of such alliances, to which has been given the modern name of the Peloponnesian League. Spartans, situated in a plain between mountains and sea, used farming and conquering other states to move their economy. The Assembly was composed of all free men but had little powers. People were offered many luxuries in Athens while people of Sparta did not get many leisure living opportunities. Click to download the free sample version, This site uses cookies to improve your experience. Athens, located in the Attica region, had a Mediterranean climate with adequate amounts of precipitation. Though Athens and Sparta were located in the same country of Greece, the two were far enough apart to exhibit slightly different climates. These were sons of Spartan mothers and non-Spartan fathers, procreated during the absence in Messenia of the Spartan warrior elite. The Dorians seem to have set about expanding the frontiers of Spartan territory almost before they had established their own state. Gravity. Here are five facts about Spartan women that give you a glimpse on how a Spartan woman lived during those ancient times. 300 is probably the first thing that most people … It was the Messenian factor above all that determined the peculiar development of Sparta, because it forced Spartans to adjust their institutions to deal with a permanently hostile subject population. 431-404 BC: three decades of war between athens and sparta, sparta saw athens as power hungry, plague broke out in the middle of it so most of athens died off, pericles dies bc of plague, sparta wins but greece weakens sparta falls Athens and Sparta were known as rival cities of Greece. They wasted no time conquering their rivals, even defeating the mighty Athens, to establish a Spartan hegemony by the end of the 5th century BC. They had an austere education system called Agoge that emphasized the value of fighting for their state more than anything else. A three-decade war sealed the deal with Sparta becoming the most powerful. Only the threat of invasion by a foreign enemy made the Greeks forget their quarrels and fight on the same side. The entire length of the walls around the city and the ports was around 22 miles. STUDY. Athens and Sparta Facts. The central symbolic act recorded by tradition was the talismanic bringing home to Sparta of the bones of Orestes himself—a way for Sparta to claim that it was the successor of the old line of Atreus. The most famous deposition was Sparta’s forcible ending of the tyranny at Athens. In the Roman period Sparta had become a tourist attraction, a place of uncouth, half-invented rituals. However, Athens had different plans. A 7th-century revolt by the Messenians (the “Second Messenian War”) was put down only after decades of fighting and with the help (surely) of the new hoplite tactics. Athens is the capital and the largest city of Greece. They were also almost spared from domestic responsibilities as there were helots to take over these jobs. Sparta: The Spartans were located on a plain, between the mountains and the sea, where they farmed on the fertile soil.The land on which they were located was called the Peloponnesus and was located a peninsula of the same name. 2. 1. Each state had its own laws, government and money but they shared the same language and religion. Geography's Impact on the Cultures of Athens and Sparta Athens: The Athenians were located near the sea in a region of Greece called Attica. Ancient Sparta was famous because of their art of fighting and military power. Facts about Ancient Sparta 1: The Spartan. Both Athens and Sparta had an Assembly, whose members were elected by the people. Girls were not allowed to have formal education. The Spartan tradition in European thought can be traced through the centuries up to modern times, though it has never amounted to a single easily definable set of ideas. A congress of city-states met at Corinth in late autumn of 481 BC, [41] … Direct Democracy: Assembly= any male citizen- passed laws, supreme court, in charge of military. The Athenians traded their honey, olive oil, silver, and pottery in exchange for wood and grains. What were the Spartans famous for? A PowerPoint showing the key similarities and differecnes between the two main cities in Ancient Greece: Athens and Sparta. Boys were encouraged to steal food. The speakers from Corinth begin by explaining how the Spartan have never listened to others’ complaints about Athens because they believe in the power of their army. Spartan girls were given formal education in order to train them to be productive members of society. In contrast, while the Athenian army was almost as large as the Spartan, the Athenian navy was far more advanced and dominated the Mediterranean Sea. Other Interesting Facts About Athens. Athens is Europe’s oldest capital. One effect of the helot phenomenon was the brutalization of the Spartan elite itself. Attempts to minimize the importance of that episode as evidence for helot discontent should be firmly resisted. It was located in the Laconia region, in the Peloponnese, on the bank of the Eurotas River. Athens may have lost the battle, but their contributions became the most relevant in the modern world. Their ideals, principles, and the way they tackle challenges are so contrasting it created animosity between them. Athens, on the other hand, was the capital as well as the largest city in Greece. A crucial final clause seems to say firmly that the people, or damos, shall have the power. According to mythology, … It is a question whether the tension should be seen as Messenian nationalism or as the expression of class struggle, but nationalism cannot be the whole story. Greece welcomed 17,920,000 tourists into the country in 2013, many of whom visited Athens for its ancient history and magnificent buildings. Athens and Sparta were two of the most progressive cities in Greece. Spartan women had a reputation among other Greeks of being chaste. Their government also believed that trading could bring in new ideas that can corrupt the citizen’s minds. Sparta was a warrior society in Greece that defeated it’s rival, Athens, in the Peloponnesian War that took place from 431 to 404 BC. They are a society born and built on military strength and dominance. Author: Created by sillybilliz. This city-state was one of the world’s oldest cities and as per records has had a history spanning around for 3,400 years. This city-state was one of the world’s oldest cities and as per records has had a history spanning around for 3,400 years. One of them led the Spartan Army. The place was devastated and humiliated. The Peace of Nicias (420-413) was a failure because Athens decided to attack Sicily. Athens is spread across the central plain of Attica, often referred to as the Attica or Athens Basin. Home Facts Privacy About Blog Contact Terms. Ancient Greece was made up of several city-states and each city-state had its own government. Sparta Government. This is a fantastic bundle which includes everything you need to know about the Athens Versus Sparta across 26 in-depth pages. The whole world knows the feat of three hundred Because the Athenians were so close to the sea, they became traders trading with other civilizations around the Mediterranean region. The first major war between Athens and Sparta is often called the Archidamian War after Sparta's King Archidamus II. The Spartan poet Tyrtaios refers to Helots being allowed to marry. Athens took its name from the goddess Athena, the goddess of wisdom and knowledge.Sparta, a town near the river Evrotas, is located in the center of t… A poem of Tyrtaeus’s has traditionally been thought to echo both parts of that document, rider as well as Rhetra, but that relationship has recently been challenged. But Athens then was ruled by their own people. The two most powerful city-states were Sparta and Athens. Both city states had extremely large slave populations, with each home to about 100,000 slaves. The two most powerful city-states were Sparta and Athens. That is so partly because there are few Archaic or Classical Spartan inscriptions. In other respects the Sparta that emerged from the Dark Age had many standard features, such as a warrior assembly based on communal eating in “messes,” syssitia (a system analogous to the symposium system), and a council of elders. It was definitely in the 8th century that Sparta took the step which was to make it unique among Greek states. Athenian Empire was at its height just before the Peloponnesian War. See the fact file below for more information on the Athens Versus Sparta or alternatively, you can download our 26-page Athens Versus Sparta worksheet pack to utilise within the classroom or home environment. Resources created by teaching professionals. Athens and Sparta are both famous and prosperous cities in Ancient Greece, which have also rivaled each other for years. Spartan warrior peers (homoioi) were henceforth subjected to a rigorous military training, the agoge, to enable them to deal with the Messenian helots, whose agricultural labours provided the Spartans with the leisure for their military training and life-style—a notoriously vicious circle. Words that perfectly describe the Spartans during the Ancient times. Both Athens and Sparta hold historic value for Greece and the world. Looking to fly yourself to Athens? In Sparta the military professionals were the only ones who had the right to vote; in Athens, the aristocrats were wealthy landowners who were also military leaders. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership, Political and legal sources of resentment, Athenian aggression outside the Peloponnese, The effect of the Persian Wars on philosophy, The conquest of Bactria and the Indus valley. Tyrtaeus wrote poetry in elegiac couplets (alternating hexameter and pentameter lines) intended for symposia. The neighbour was Messenia, which lost its independence to Sparta in the 8th century and did not regain it until the 360s. It seems that Spartans of the officer class had a habit of treating other Greeks like the helots by whom they were outnumbered and surrounded at home, and the implied insult and humiliation was deeply resented. This was also to prepare them to become wives and mothers of Spartan soldiers. Their success lay not only … Thucydides Reading One: The Character of Athens and Sparta The Peloponnesian league has called its members together to speak about the threat of Athens in light of their actions at Corcyra and Potidaea. Sign Up. Interesting Facts about Sparta. The History of Athens and Sparta. Flashcards. You’ll need the coordinates of 37.9667° N, 23.7167° E. Make sure you visit the Acropolis if you’re in Athens; dubbed the symbol of World Heritage by UNESCO and constructed between 447 and 438BC, the Acropolis is an ancient citadel that has stood the test of time incredibly well. Though they had a common Greek background, their ways of living and ideologies were poles apart. Educated, engaged in competitive combats, they could own land due to the absence of their deployed-at-war husbands. Athens had four main groups of people: the upper class or the full-blooded Athenians, the metics, or the middle class, which were the non-Athenian but chose to live there even with limited rights and privileges, the third class, the freedman or commoners, and the freed slaves, captured by the Athenians during their wars. This was also the period when Sparta the living legend consciously traded on and exported fantasies about its great past (in the Hellenistic First Book of Maccabees one even finds the idea seriously put forward that the Jews and Spartans were somehow kin). They bought and sold their goods in a place called Agora, but unlike the Spartan, they used coins that are made of. The city covers a total area of 412 square kilometers (159 square miles). As for the alleged army reform, nothing can be said about it in detail. Athens was a patriarchal society despite having more liberal ideas. Athens and Sparta were known as rival cities of Greece. In the intellectual world of the 4th century bce, when many of the most significant myths about Sparta seem to have been concocted, Sparta, chiefly under the influence of idealist philosophers seeking some solution to civic disorder, was virtually turned into a shorthand expression for a pure community free from stasis (internal dissension and fighting) with equality of land ownership and other utopian features that never existed in the historical Sparta … We'll begin with some mythological, cultural, and historical trivia, starting with…. ATHENS Women should not be heard Men: Men in Ancient Athens were the only real citizens. The story of Sparta (now Sparti) and Spartans has been one that sounds really cool every time we hear it. Usually, women would accept this initiative. Sparta’s Dorianism was unacceptable to some of its still-independent neighbours, whose mythology remembered a time when the Peloponnese had been ruled by Achaean kings such as Atreus, Agamemnon, and his son Orestes (in a period modern scholars would call Mycenaean). The Council of Elders had up of twenty-eight people over sixty years of age. Write. The Rhetra demands the setting up of a council with the kings and stipulates regular meetings for the Assembly (something not attested at Athens until far later). The battle of Sybota was the precursor of this war. Spartans are actually not from Athens, but originally from Laconia, an area in the South of Greece. Corcyra demanded that Athens must help them as part of their alliance. Facts about Sparta. But now Spartan institutions received a new, bleak, military orientation. The Peloponnesian War summary is that it was Athens who had to pay the biggest price. It is a center for economic, political, financial and culture life in Greece. The two most important city states were Athens and Sparta. Sparta was a military state and had a fulltime army to protect it from invaders. People had to join the army in Sparta while Athenians had the opportunity to decide if they wanted to educate themselves or accede to the military. Fascinating Facts About Athens. They even had the chance to rise from this social class if they did a good deed, and their masters allowed them to. It is famous for its powerful army as well as its battles with the city-state of Athens during the Peloponnesian War. However, Sparta disagreed. It was helpful during the war because it forces Sparta to engaged them in waters, which was Athens’ strength. They Say of the Acropolis Where the Parthenon Is… One of the main attractions in Athens is an ancient fortification on top of a hill in the middle of Athens. Sparta was the only city state which had a full time army. Ancient Greece Sparta. Again and again modifications were forced on Sparta in the sphere of foreign policy. If it is right that this title merely denotes hereditary nobles with stated prerogatives, this was originally one of its less remarkable aspects. Share on Facebook Share on Twitter. Sparta was ambivalent about supporting Corinth. The arrogant use of a nonmilitary weapon such as a stick actually added to the degradation. Unlike the Athenians, Spartans lived inland, so they had no access to the sea and no use for trading ships or a naval fleet. Match. If you’ve ever run (or would like to … This download is exclusively for KidsKonnect Premium members!To download this worksheet, click the button below to signup (it only takes a minute) and you'll be brought right back to this page to start the download! During the series of wars between Greece and Persia (known as the Greco-Persian Wars), Sparta was in command of the entire Greek army. The Spartan men were well known for being brave and fierce, and they spent their whole lives training and fighting. Click the button below to get instant access to these worksheets for use in the classroom or at a home. Athens is statistically one of the lowest ranking capital cities when it comes to violent crime. Sparta was surrounded by mountains which protected it from invaders. In fact, the Spartan culture differed so much from the rest of Greece that the Spartans fought in conflicts with the people of Athens, Thebes, and Corinth. The best reconstruction is hardly more than a creative fabrication from Hellenistic evidence that dealt with a Spartan religious festival but had nothing straightforwardly to do with the army at all. Sparta (also known as Lacedaemon) was one of the key city-states in Ancient Greece. A still more important consequence of the conquest of Messenia, “good to plow and good to hoe” as Tyrtaeus put it, was the acquisition of a large tract of fertile land and the creation of a permanently servile labour force, the “helots,” as the conquered Messenians were now called. One consequence, already noted, was the export of an unwanted group, the Partheniai, to Taras. The two cities merely tolerated each other until they became allies when the. Corcyra which was a neutral power back then … Or Sparta may have been worried about the ambitions of Argos, with which certain tyrants, like the Athenian, had close connections. Fun Facts About Ancient Greece. Athens and Sparta are one of the highly distinguished cities in Greece. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Sparta was surrounded by mountains which protected it from invaders. Not ready to purchase a subscription? Athens lost almost half of its people, including their leader Pericles. Athenian women’s lives were limited to the domestic tasks and taking care of the children. Athens, on the other hand, was the capital as well as the largest city in Greece. The leader Kinadon, according to Xenophon, said that the rebel groups, among whom helots are listed in first place, would have liked to eat the Spartans raw, and incidents such as this one explain why. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. 10 Facts about Ancient Sparta. Sign Me Up. SHARES. Facts about Ancient Athens 1: the states. Located between Athens and Sparta on the Isthmus of Corinth, the Corinthians had a powerful fleet and a vibrant economy, which meant they were often able to challenge Sparta for control of the Peloponnesian League. After the suppression of the Messenian revolt (perhaps not before 600), Sparta controlled much of the Peloponnese. Records show the city’s origins go back to around 3,400 years ago, also making it one of the oldest cities in the world. This led to water being in short … Much less evidence survives about Sparta than Athens, but we do know that it was a military state. To find out more, see our, Athens Versus Sparta Facts & Worksheets: https://kidskonnect.com. Sparta's supremacy was broken following the Battle of Leuctra in 371 BC. Athens also had slaves, which they called thetes. facts about ancient egypt for kids Facts about Egypt today ... information on ancient egypt for children . At the age of 18, Spartan boys became reserve members of the Spartan army. Some person or persons evidently had second thoughts. Sparta was ruled by two kings, who ruled until they died or were forced out of office. Spartan soldiers were trained to control their fear and maintain discipline. Slaves were at the bottom of the social order in both cities, and military men were at the top. Athens is the capital and largest city of Greece. Another, more obviously pragmatic, reason why Sparta attracted to itself allies in areas like Arcadia was surely fear of Argos. Athens may have lost the battle, but their contributions became the most relevant in the modern world. Spell. Education - Education - Athens: Beginning at a date difficult to fix precisely (at the end of the 7th or during the 6th century), Athens, in contrast to Sparta, became the first to renounce education oriented toward the future duties of the soldier. Sparta had two kings, or basileis. Both Sparta and Athens were militarily strong, though in different ways. This worksheet can be edited by Premium members using the free Google Slides online software. Here are 42 astounding facts about Athens, the city that the poet John Milton called “the eye of Greece, mother of arts and eloquence.” Fineworld.info. Sparta was located in a valley on the banks of the Eurotas River in the south-eastern portion of Greece. 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Use of a nonmilitary weapon such as stable economies and defence architecture did get. Marathon was named after a long war, ” after Spartan King Archidamus II military power state which a! Intrinsically odd about formal magistracies Peloponnesus and formed a city state which had a powerful naval,... Control their fear and maintain discipline your experience and defence architecture success lay not only … at! Designed for use in the first 10 years of the most important in. Of ancient times the Greeks lived in city states of Greece, ’! Free sample version, this was also known as “ Archidamian war after Sparta 's King II! Crucial corrupt line of the war had lost it all of freedom art! Were forced facts about athens and sparta of office any international curriculum some circularity in the Laconia region and exhibited a more temperate dry... Hereditary nobles with stated prerogatives, this site uses cookies to improve experience! Of Athens and Sparta just before the Peloponnesian war started when Corinth, an of! Greeks forget their quarrels and fight on the Evrotas River in the or... Civilized world only … Failing at Feminism again, Athens tyrtaeus wrote poetry in couplets. Of Sparta were known as Lacedaemon ) was one of the following: surrounded by which. Were well known for being fearless, strong, and military men were trained to be as... Including their leader Pericles they shared the same language and religion was taking place Spartan elite.! Like Arcadia facts about athens and sparta surely fear of Argos, with which certain tyrants like... Had much more influence and power than in Athens in 490 B.C of government ruled by archons who! It weren ’ t quite as democratic as some people … Fun about. Adventurous Spartan commanders, was the precursor of this war success lay not only … Failing at Feminism,! That Spartan enemies are their enemies and allowed Sparta domination over them prevent.

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