Cadmium is a chemical element with atomic number 48 which means there are 48 protons and 48 electrons in the atomic structure. Tellurium is a chemical element with atomic number 52 which means there are 52 protons and 52 electrons in the atomic structure. An element that is not combined with any other different elements has an oxidation state of 0. Pure germanium is a semiconductor with an appearance similar to elemental silicon. Nevertheless, check the complete configuration and other interesting facts about Radium that most people don't know. If you continue to use this site we will assume that you are happy with it. The electron configuration can be visualized as the core electrons, equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, and the valence electrons (e.g. The chemical symbol for Lithium is Li. The electron configuration is the distribution of electrons of an atom or molecule (or other physical structure) in atomic or molecular orbitals. Silver is a chemical element with atomic number 47 which means there are 47 protons and 47 electrons in the atomic structure. The chemical symbol for Berkelium is Bk. The chemical symbol for Fluorine is F. Fluorine is the lightest halogen and exists as a highly toxic pale yellow diatomic gas at standard conditions. [Kr] 5s24d105p3 antimony b. The chemical symbol for Chlorine is Cl. The free element, produced by reductive smelting, is a hard, lustrous, silver-gray metal. Favorite Answer [Ar] 4s2 3d2 is the basic electron structure of titanium. Copper is a soft, malleable, and ductile metal with very high thermal and electrical conductivity. Lithium is a chemical element with atomic number 3 which means there are 3 protons and 3 electrons in the atomic structure. Mercury is commonly known as quicksilver and was formerly named hydrargyrum. The chemical symbol for Samarium is Sm. Nitrogen is a chemical element with atomic number 7 which means there are 7 protons and 7 electrons in the atomic structure. Neodymium is a soft silvery metal that tarnishes in air. The chemical symbol for Americium is Am. Oxidation state 0 occurs for all elements – it is simply the element in its elemental form. Bismuth is a pentavalent post-transition metal and one of the pnictogens, chemically resembles its lighter homologs arsenic and antimony. Search for "Gelson Luz" in your favorite browser to learn more. Rubidium is a chemical element with atomic number 37 which means there are 37 protons and 37 electrons in the atomic structure. Oxidation states are typically represented by integers which may be positive, zero, or negative. Promethium is one of only two such elements that are followed in the periodic table by elements with stable forms. It is a soft, silvery-white alkali metal. Gelson Luz is a Mechanical Engineer, expert in welding and passionate about materials. The chemical symbol for Thulium is Tm. The chemical symbol for Radium is Ra. Chlorine is a chemical element with atomic number 17 which means there are 17 protons and 17 electrons in the atomic structure. The chemical symbol for Chromium is Cr. Commercially, thallium is produced as a byproduct from refining of heavy metal sulfide ores. The chemical symbol for Bismuth is Bi. 1 decade ago. Astatine is a chemical element with atomic number 85 which means there are 85 protons and 85 electrons in the atomic structure. Neodymium is a chemical element with atomic number 60 which means there are 60 protons and 60 electrons in the atomic structure. Californium is an actinide element, the sixth transuranium element to be synthesized, and has the second-highest atomic mass of all the elements that have been produced in amounts large enough to see with the unaided eye (after einsteinium). Promethium is a chemical element with atomic number 61 which means there are 61 protons and 61 electrons in the atomic structure. The chemical symbol for Beryllium is Be. Antimony is a lustrous gray metalloid, it is found in nature mainly as the sulfide mineral stibnite. The chemical properties of the atom are determined by the number of protons, in fact, by number and arrangement of electrons. It is also sometimes considered the first element of the 6th-period transition metals and is traditionally counted among the rare earth elements. The number of electrons in each element’s electron shells, particularly the outermost valence shell, is the primary factor in determining its chemical bonding behavior. It could be part of the main body, but then the periodic table would be rather long and cumbersome. Argon is a chemical element with atomic number 18 which means there are 18 protons and 18 electrons in the atomic structure. Caesium is a chemical element with atomic number 55 which means there are 55 protons and 55 electrons in the atomic structure. All of the alkali metals have a single valence electron in the outer electron shell, which is easily removed to create an ion with a positive charge – a cation, which combines with anions to form salts. electron configuration for a radium atom (Z= 88) in the ground state is 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 3d 10 4s 2 4p 6 4d 10 5s 2 5p 6 4f 14 5d 10 6s 2 6p 6 7s 2 . Gallium does not occur as a free element in nature, but as gallium(III) compounds in trace amounts in zinc ores and in bauxite. In the periodic table, potassium is one of the alkali metals. It is generally NOT possible for ordinary people to buy radium. Cadmium Electronic configuration. The chemical symbol for Neodymium is Nd. Uranium is weakly radioactive because all isotopes of uranium are unstable, with half-lives varying between 159,200 years and 4.5 billion years. The chemical symbol for Europium is Eu. Iodine is a chemical element with atomic number 53 which means there are 53 protons and 53 electrons in the atomic structure. Caesium is a soft, silvery-gold alkali metal with a melting point of 28.5 °C, which makes it one of only five elemental metals that are liquid at or near room temperature. The elements in which the electron enters in (n -1)d orbital are called d-block elements. Scandium is a chemical element with atomic number 21 which means there are 21 protons and 21 electrons in the atomic structure. Entire website is based on our own personal perspectives, and do not represent the views of any company of nuclear industry. Beryllium is a hard, grayish metal naturally found in mineral rocks, coal, soil, and volcanic dust. The chemical symbol for Francium is Fr. [Rn]7s2. Materials: Electron Configuration of Radium (Ra) [Complete, Abbreviated, Uses ... Electron Configuration of Radium (Ra) [Complete, Abbreviated, Uses ... https://1.bp.blogspot.com/-zZAhTHj5X6I/XUYVggyRhmI/AAAAAAAAf90/IohGwROcv5IEp4WXo3km0Z6JQymOidAXgCLcBGAs/s320/electron-configuration-of-radium.webp, https://1.bp.blogspot.com/-zZAhTHj5X6I/XUYVggyRhmI/AAAAAAAAf90/IohGwROcv5IEp4WXo3km0Z6JQymOidAXgCLcBGAs/s72-c/electron-configuration-of-radium.webp, https://materials.gelsonluz.com/2019/08/electron-configuration-of-radium-ra.html. These electron configurations have mistakes, determine what is wrong. Calcium is an alkaline earth metal, it is a reactive pale yellow metal that forms a dark oxide-nitride layer when exposed to air. Bromine is a chemical element with atomic number 35 which means there are 35 protons and 35 electrons in the atomic structure. The chemical symbol for Holmium is Ho. Dysprosium is used for its high thermal neutron absorption cross-section in making control rods in nuclear reactors, for its high magnetic susceptibility in data storage applications. Gallium is a chemical element with atomic number 31 which means there are 31 protons and 31 electrons in the atomic structure. Elemental rubidium is highly reactive, with properties similar to those of other alkali metals, including rapid oxidation in air. The chemical symbol for Gold is Au. The name xenon for this gas comes from the Greek word ξένον [xenon], neuter singular form of ξένος [xenos], meaning ‘foreign(er)’, ‘strange(r)’, or ‘guest’. Francium is a highly radioactive metal that decays into astatine, radium, and radon. Magnesium is a chemical element with atomic number 12 which means there are 12 protons and 12 electrons in the atomic structure. The electron configuration is the distribution of electrons of an atom or molecule (or other … These have similar chemical properties, but palladium has the lowest melting point and is the least dense of them. The portion of Radium configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as [Rn]. Rhodium is a rare, silvery-white, hard, corrosion resistant and chemically inert transition metal. Germanium is a chemical element with atomic number 32 which means there are 32 protons and 32 electrons in the atomic structure. The chemical symbol for Zinc is Zn. The chemical symbol for Indium is In. Cadmium is a soft, bluish-white metal is chemically similar to the two other stable metals in group 12, zinc and mercury. The chemical symbol for Titanium is Ti. Need an editable periodic table to edit? Zirconium is widely used as a cladding for nuclear reactor fuels. Radium atoms have 88 electrons and the shell structure is 2.8.18.32.18.8.2. The chemical symbol for Gadolinium is Gd. The chemical symbol for Sodium is Na. It is a lanthanide, a rare earth element, originally found in the gadolinite mine in Ytterby in Sweden. Chlorine is a yellow-green gas at room temperature. Lv 5. The outer electronic configuration of the element M o (Z = 4 2) is: MEDIUM. Americium is a chemical element with atomic number 95 which means there are 95 protons and 95 electrons in the atomic structure. 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d10 5s2 5p64f14 5d10 6s2 6p6 7s² or in other terms [Rn] 7s2 and the term symbol is 1S0. All isotopes of radium are highly radioactive, with the most stable isotope being radium-226. Approximately 60–70% of thallium production is used in the electronics industry. It is the heaviest element that can be formed by neutron bombardment of lighter elements, and hence the last element that can be prepared in macroscopic quantities. Tungsten is an intrinsically brittle and hard material, making it difficult to work. The chemical symbol for Aluminum is Al. The chemical symbol for Krypton is Kr. The chemical symbol for Lead is Pb. The chemical symbol for Thallium is Tl. The chemical symbol for Molybdenum is Mo. The chemical symbol for Selenium is Se. The bulk properties of astatine are not known with any certainty. Manganese is a chemical element with atomic number 25 which means there are 25 protons and 25 electrons in the atomic structure. Full configuration: 1s^2 2s^2 2p^6 3s^2 3p^6 4s^2 3d^(10) 4p^6 5s^2 4d^(10) 5p^6 6s^2 4f^(14 ) 5d^10 6p^6 7s^1 Noble gas configuration : [Rn]7s^1 If you recognize where each of the "blocks" of the periodic table are and that each period has a shell number, n, you can figure out electron configurations pretty quickly just by looking at the position of the element on the table. It is occasionally found in native form as elemental crystals. Bromine is the third-lightest halogen, and is a fuming red-brown liquid at room temperature that evaporates readily to form a similarly coloured gas. This model has been widely accepted, and according to it, each atom has shells, which further have subshells. Neon is a chemical element with atomic number 10 which means there are 10 protons and 10 electrons in the atomic structure. The chemical symbol for Radium is Ra. The chemical symbol for Erbium is Er. Antimony compounds have been known since ancient times and were powdered for use as medicine and cosmetics, often known by the Arabic name, kohl. Radium (Ra), Electron Configuration: [Rn] 7s2 | Learn Fast - Githy.com. By mass, aluminium makes up about 8% of the Earth’s crust; it is the third most abundant element after oxygen and silicon and the most abundant metal in the crust, though it is less common in the mantle below. In the case of Radon the abbreviated electron configuration is [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p6. The most probable fission fragment masses are around mass 95 (Krypton) and 137 (Barium). Mercury is a heavy, silvery d-block element, mercury is the only metallic element that is liquid at standard conditions for temperature and pressure. Lanthanoids comprise the 15 metallic chemical elements with atomic numbers 57 through 71, from lanthanum through lutetium. If you want to get in touch with us, please do not hesitate to contact us via e-mail: Discoverer: Ramsey, Sir William and Cleve, Per Teodor. The chemical symbol for Arsenic is As. The chemical properties of this silvery gray, crystalline transition metal are intermediate between rhenium and manganese. The chemical symbol for Tantalum is Ta. Like all elements with atomic number over 100, lawrencium can only be produced in particle accelerators by bombarding lighter elements with charged particles. The chemical symbol for Rhodium is Rh. Xenon is a colorless, dense, odorless noble gas found in the Earth’s atmosphere in trace amounts. Hafnium’s large neutron capture cross-section makes it a good material for neutron absorption in control rods in nuclear power plants, but at the same time requires that it be removed from the neutron-transparent corrosion-resistant zirconium alloys used in nuclear reactors. Vanadium is a chemical element with atomic number 23 which means there are 23 protons and 23 electrons in the atomic structure. Answer Save. Actinium gave the name to the actinide series, a group of 15 similar elements between actinium and lawrencium in the periodic table. A sublevel is filled or half-filled before the next sublevel is entered. The chemical symbol for Fermium is Fm. Plutonium is an actinide metal of silvery-gray appearance that tarnishes when exposed to air, and forms a dull coating when oxidized. Thulium is a chemical element with atomic number 69 which means there are 69 protons and 69 electrons in the atomic structure. The chemical symbol for Platinum is Pt. We assume no responsibility for consequences which may arise from the use of information from this website. Like all elements with atomic number over 100, nobelium can only be produced in particle accelerators by bombarding lighter elements with charged particles. Hafnium is a chemical element with atomic number 72 which means there are 72 protons and 72 electrons in the atomic structure. and the term oxidation number is nearly synonymous. Scandium is a silvery-white metallic d-block element, it has historically been sometimes classified as a rare-earth element, together with yttrium and the lanthanides. Molybdenum is a chemical element with atomic number 42 which means there are 42 protons and 42 electrons in the atomic structure. Determine what elements are denoted by the following electron configurations: a. Erbium is a chemical element with atomic number 68 which means there are 68 protons and 68 electrons in the atomic structure. Some are hard to memorise (or predict), so what is the electron configuration of an atom of Ra? View Answer. HARD. Holmium is a relatively soft and malleable silvery-white metal. Ra Electron Configuration in Just 5 Steps To do or find or writing electronic configuration of Ra (Radium),we will follow just 5 steps. Because of its closed-shell electron configuration, its density and melting and boiling points differ significantly from those of most other lanthanides. Carbon is a chemical element with atomic number 6 which means there are 6 protons and 6 electrons in the atomic structure. N i 2 + ion (Z = 28) contains _____ unpaired electrons. and Gay-Lussac, L.-J. This fact has key implications for the building up of the periodic table of elements. Cerium is also traditionally considered one of the rare-earth elements. It is by mass the most common element on Earth, forming much of Earth’s outer and inner core. The chemical symbol for Uranium is U. Electronic configuration: 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 3d 10 4s 2 4p 6 4d 10 5s 2 >> Back to key information about the elementBack to key information about the element Francium is a chemical element with atomic number 87 which means there are 87 protons and 87 electrons in the atomic structure. Potassium is a chemical element with atomic number 19 which means there are 19 protons and 19 electrons in the atomic structure. Its physical and chemical properties are most similar to its heavier homologues strontium and barium. Lead is soft and malleable, and has a relatively low melting point. The element radium (atomic number 88) has the long term electron configuration 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 5s2 4d10 5p6 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p6 7s2 The electron configuration (short form) of radium is [Rn]7s2 . See the answer. Actinium is a soft, silvery-white radioactive metal. Only about 5×10−8% of all matter in the universe is europium. Neptunium metal is silvery and tarnishes when exposed to air. Platinum is a chemical element with atomic number 78 which means there are 78 protons and 78 electrons in the atomic structure. Plutonium is a chemical element with atomic number 94 which means there are 94 protons and 94 electrons in the atomic structure. Indium is a chemical element with atomic number 49 which means there are 49 protons and 49 electrons in the atomic structure. In the periodic table, the elements are listed in order of increasing atomic number Z. When it forms the Ti +3 ion, it takes the electron structure [Ar] 4s0 3d1. The chemical symbol for Ytterbium is Yb. Lead is a chemical element with atomic number 82 which means there are 82 protons and 82 electrons in the atomic structure. Iron is a chemical element with atomic number 26 which means there are 26 protons and 26 electrons in the atomic structure. Hydrogen is a chemical element with atomic number 1 which means there are 1 protons and 1 electrons in the atomic structure. For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used.This is important as it is the Valence electrons 7s2, electrons in the outermost shell that … Einsteinium is the seventh transuranic element, and an actinide. Discoverer: Marinsky, Jacob A. and Coryell, Charles D. and Glendenin, Lawerence. Germanium is a lustrous, hard, grayish-white metalloid in the carbon group, chemically similar to its group neighbors tin and silicon. Copper is used as a conductor of heat and electricity, as a building material, and as a constituent of various metal alloys, such as sterling silver used in jewelry, cupronickel used to make marine hardware and coins. Relevance. The chemical symbol for Iron is Fe. The elemental metal is rarely found in nature, but once isolated artificially, the formation of an oxide layer (passivation) stabilizes the free metal somewhat against further oxidation. Because of its high chemical reactivity, barium is never found in nature as a free element. Discoverer: Priestley, Joseph and Scheele, Carl Wilhelm, Discoverer: Ramsay, William and Travers, Morris, Discoverer: Ramsay, Sir William and Strutt, John (Lord Rayleigh), Discoverer: Del Rio, Andrés Manuel (1801) and Sefström, Nils Gabriel (1830), Discoverer: Lecoq de Boisbaudran, Paul-Émile, Discoverer: Ramsay, Sir William and Travers, Morris, Discoverer: Bunsen, Robert Wilhelm and Kirchhoff, Gustav Robert, Discoverer: Perrier, Carlo and Segrè, Emilio, Discoverer: Reich, Ferdinand and Richter, Hieronymus, Discoverer: Müller von Reichenstein, Franz Joseph, Discoverer: Ramsay, William and Travers, Morris William, Discoverer: Kirchhoff, Gustav and Bunsen, Robert. The chemical symbol for Calcium is Ca. The chemical symbol for Astatine is At. For elements after No, the electron configurations are tentative. Radium is a chemical element with atomic number 88 which means there are 88 protons in its nucleus. It is also the most corrosion-resistant metal, even at temperatures as high as 2000 °C. Platinum is one of the least reactive metals. 88 electrons (green) bind to the nucleus, … Radium is a chemical element with atomic number 88 which means there are 88 protons and 88 electrons in the atomic structure. Neptunium is a chemical element with atomic number 93 which means there are 93 protons and 93 electrons in the atomic structure. Tantalum is a chemical element with atomic number 73 which means there are 73 protons and 73 electrons in the atomic structure. The ordering of the electrons in the ground state of multielectron atoms, starts with the lowest energy state (ground state) and moves progressively from there up the energy scale until each of the atom’s electrons has been assigned a unique set of quantum numbers. Holmium is a part of the lanthanide series, holmium is a rare-earth element. Niobium is a soft, grey, ductile transition metal, often found in the minerals pyrochlore (the main commercial source for niobium) and columbite. Xenon is a chemical element with atomic number 54 which means there are 54 protons and 54 electrons in the atomic structure. Manganese is a metal with important industrial metal alloy uses, particularly in stainless steels. The first alloy used on a large scale was bronze, made of tin and copper, from as early as 3000 BC. Zirconium is mainly used as a refractory and opacifier, although small amounts are used as an alloying agent for its strong resistance to corrosion. Lead is a heavy metal that is denser than most common materials. The information contained in this website is for general information purposes only. Protactinium is a chemical element with atomic number 91 which means there are 91 protons and 91 electrons in the atomic structure. Similarly, adding electrons results in a negative oxidation state. al. In nuclear industry cadmium is commonly used as a thermal neutron absorber due to very high neutron absorption cross-section of 113Cd. Our Privacy Policy is a legal statement that explains what kind of information about you we collect, when you visit our Website. 1) You may use almost everything for non-commercial and educational use. Its abundance in rocky planets like Earth is due to its abundant production by fusion in high-mass stars. Titanium is a lustrous transition metal with a silver color, low density, and high strength. The chemical symbol for Nitrogen is N. Nitrogen is a colourless, odourless unreactive gas that forms about 78% of the earth’s atmosphere. The chemical symbol for Niobium is Nb. Uranium is a radioactive element denoted by the chemical symbol U. Helium is a chemical element with atomic number 2 which means there are 2 protons and 2 electrons in the atomic structure. Rubidium is a soft, silvery-white metallic element of the alkali metal group, with an atomic mass of 85.4678. Why is the electron configuration for a ti+3 ion [AR]4s^0 3d^1 & not [AR]4s^2 3d^2. Its extreme rarity in the Earth’s crust, comparable to that of platinum. Discoverer: Corson, Dale R. and Mackenzie, K. R. The actinide or actinoid series encompasses the 15 metallic chemical elements with atomic numbers from 89 to 103, actinium through lawrencium. In order to write the Rb electron configuration we first need to know the number of electrons for the Rb atom (there are 37 electrons). Iodine is the least abundant of the stable halogens, being the sixty-first most abundant element. The chemical symbol for Terbium is Tb. Explanation: Radium is in group 2/IIA, and all of the elements in that group have two valence electrons. It rarely occurs in its elemental state or as pure ore compounds in the Earth’s crust. The chemical symbol for Manganese is Mn. The chemical symbol for Iridium is Ir. Knowledge of the electron configuration of different atoms is useful in understanding the structure of the periodic table of elements. Pure radium is silvery-white alkaline earth metal. Oxygen is a chemical element with atomic number 8 which means there are 8 protons and 8 electrons in the atomic structure. Titanium can be used in surface condensers. Palladium, platinum, rhodium, ruthenium, iridium and osmium form a group of elements referred to as the platinum group metals (PGMs). Gadolinium is a chemical element with atomic number 64 which means there are 64 protons and 64 electrons in the atomic structure. The electron configuration of uranium is 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d10 4f14 5s2 5p6 5d10 5f3 6s2 6p6 6d1 7s2. Krypton is a member of group 18 (noble gases) elements. Uranium is a chemical element with atomic number 92 which means there are 92 protons and 92 electrons in the atomic structure. Gold is a chemical element with atomic number 79 which means there are 79 protons and 79 electrons in the atomic structure. 113Cd has specific absorption cross-section. Silicon is a chemical element with atomic number 14 which means there are 14 protons and 14 electrons in the atomic structure. Silicon is a hard and brittle crystalline solid with a blue-grey metallic lustre, it is a tetravalent metalloid and semiconductor. Tungsten is a chemical element with atomic number 74 which means there are 74 protons and 74 electrons in the atomic structure. Nickel is a chemical element with atomic number 28 which means there are 28 protons and 28 electrons in the atomic structure. The chemical symbol for Neon is Ne. The chemical symbol for Thorium is Th. Lutetium is a silvery white metal, which resists corrosion in dry air, but not in moist air. The chemical symbol for Tin is Sn. Mercury is a chemical element with atomic number 80 which means there are 80 protons and 80 electrons in the atomic structure. Neptunium is the first transuranic element. The chemical symbol for Hafnium is Hf. Thanks for the help. The chemical symbol for Mercury is Hg. this is full electronic configuration. The chemical symbol for Antimony is Sb. Electronic configuration: 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 3d 10 4s 2 4p 6 4d 10 5s 2 5p 6 4f 14 5d 10 6s 2 6p 6 7s 2 >> Back to key information about the element Radon is a chemical element with atomic number 86 which means there are 86 protons and 86 electrons in the atomic structure. Lawrencium is the final member of the actinide series. It has remarkable resistance to corrosion, even at high temperatures, and is therefore considered a noble metal. The chemical symbol for Magnesium is Mg. Magnesium is a shiny gray solid which bears a close physical resemblance to the other five elements in the second column (group 2, or alkaline earth metals) of the periodic table: all group 2 elements have the same electron configuration in the outer electron shell and a similar crystal structure. E. Discoverer: De Marignac, Charles Galissard, Discoverer: De Marignac, Jean Charles Galissard, Discoverer: Göhring, Otto and Fajans, Kasimir. Our Website follows all legal requirements to protect your privacy. Samarium is a chemical element with atomic number 62 which means there are 62 protons and 62 electrons in the atomic structure. Under normal conditions, sulfur atoms form cyclic octatomic molecules with a chemical formula S8. Europium is one of the least abundant elements in the universe. Lanthanum is a soft, ductile, silvery-white metal that tarnishes rapidly when exposed to air and is soft enough to be cut with a knife. Palladium is a chemical element with atomic number 46 which means there are 46 protons and 46 electrons in the atomic structure. Liquid nitrogen (made by distilling liquid air) boils at 77.4 kelvins (−195.8°C) and is used as a coolant. Copper is a chemical element with atomic number 29 which means there are 29 protons and 29 electrons in the atomic structure. Rhodium is a chemical element with atomic number 45 which means there are 45 protons and 45 electrons in the atomic structure. The periodic table is a tabular display of the chemical elements organized on the basis of their atomic numbers, electron configurations, and chemical properties. Praseodymium is a soft, silvery, malleable and ductile metal, valued for its magnetic, electrical, chemical, and optical properties. Lawrencium is a chemical element with atomic number 103 which means there are 103 protons and 103 electrons in the atomic structure. The configuration of these electrons follows from the principles of quantum mechanics. Most elements have more than one possible oxidation state.

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